There’s a limit on how much you’ll pay for medical expenses on your own.
The out-of-pocket maximum limits how much you’ll spend on your own for medical expenses
Every health plan has an annual out-of-pocket maximum, which resets every year
In health insurance, the out-of-pocket maximum is an example of cost sharing
Typically, a low out-of-pocket maximum mean higher premiums
Your out-of-pocket maximum is the most you'll have to pay for covered health care services in a year if you have health insurance. Deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance count toward your out-of-pocket maximum; monthly premiums do not. The maximum out-of-pocket limit for 2020 plans is $8,200 for individual plans and $16,400 for family plans.
These are limits set by the federal government on how much your health insurance plan can legally make you to pay — but in most cases your plan’s out-of-pocket maximum amount will be much lower.
If you need a medical procedure and have a health insurance plan, then the insurance company can help share the cost of your bills. This typically only happens after you spend a certain amount of money on your own, called the deductible. After you meet the deductible, how the costs are shared depends on your plan. For example, you might have to pay for a percentage (coinsurance).
Additionally, all health insurance plans are required to have an out-of-pocket maximum that limits the amount of money people spend out-of-pocket on medical expenses in a given year. The maximum out-of-pocket limit is federally mandated. The most that individuals will have to pay out-of-pocket in 2020 is $8,200 and $16,400 for families. However, your plan may have a lower out-of-pocket maximum — most do.
After you pay for enough medical expenses on your own and meet the maximum out-of-pocket amount, your insurance will start to cover 100% of your medical bills. (We’ll go into an example later to illustrate how this works). The out-of-pocket maximum resets annually.
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Three types of out-of-pocket expenses count towards your out-of-pocket maximum:
Your monthly premium does not count towards your out-of-pocket maximum. Even if you hit your out-of-pocket limit, you still need to continue to pay your premium.
The out-of-pocket maximum also excludes services that aren’t covered by your health plan. For example, if health insurance doesn’t cover an emergency room visit, then it won’t begin to do so even after you reach the out-of-pocket limit.
Similarly, whether or not the cost of preventive services and prescription drugs count towards the out-of-pocket maximum will depend on how your health plan covers this type of care to begin with. (Many health plans cover preventive care, like an annual check-up, in full. You might just be responsible for a copay, which, as mentioned, counts toward the out-of-pocket limit.)
And check out our study on where people pay the most an Obamacare health plan.
As an example, let's say you have a health insurance plan with a $2,000 deductible, a 30% coinsurance for all care after meeting the deductible, and a $5,000 out-of-pocket limit. The day after you sign up for this plan, you get into a car accident. The total cost of your medical care is $15,000.
Here’s what you would end up paying, based on different out of-pocket maximums including $5,000:
|No OOP max||$5,000 OOP max||$3,000 OOP max|
After paying $2,000, you will have met your annual deductible. Next, you’d have to pay $3,900 based on your coinsurance — 30% of the remaining $13,000. Adding that to the deductible amount would result in $5,900 you’d have to pay out of pocket.
However, since your health plan won’t let you pay more than $5,000, it will shave off anything above that point. Insurance will cover $900 from your bills, which means you'll actually pay $3,000 instead of $3,900.
The next time you have a covered medical expense, health insurance will pay for your medical bills in full until the next plan year, which typically means the end of the calendar year. Check with your plan provider to confirm the terms of your plan.
The benefits to having a lower out-of-pocket maximum means you spend less before insurance covers the total costs. However, it’s the more expensive plans (those with a higher monthly premium) that tend to have lower out-of-pocket maximums and vice versa.
Health plans with very low insurance premiums — like a catastrophic plan or high-deductible health plan (HDHP) — tend to have higher out-of-pocket maximums. Catastrophic coverage is a special type of health insurance plan available only to people under 30 or people with a hardship exemption. These plans are essentially designed only to cover you in the event of very expensive accident with high medical costs. Catastrophic plans have a deductible that matches the federal maximum out-of-pocket limit — meaning you will have to spend a lot out of pocket before insurance starts paying for the cost of care.
Health insurance and life insurance work together to offer financial protection.
Health insurance can pay your medical expenses. Life insurance keeps your loved ones whole after you die.
Elissa Suh is a personal finance editor at Policygenius in New York City. She has researched and written extensively about finance and insurance since 2019, with an emphasis in esate planning and mortgages. Her writing has been cited by MarketWatch, CNBC, and Betterment.
Elissa has a B.A. in Film Studies from Barnard College.
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