Variable life insurance

Looking to build a tax-free inheritence and protect your family? Find out if variable life insurance is right for you.

Colin Lalley 1600

Colin Lalley

Published May 9, 2019

What is variable life insurance?

Variable life insurance is a type of permanent life insurance, meaning it stays in force your whole life if you keep paying monthly or annual premiums. Variable life insurance is similar to whole life insurance—a simpler form of permanent life insurance—in that it pays a tax-free sum to your beneficiaries if you die, and in that it contains a long-term savings component called the “cash value” of the policy. However, unlike whole life insurance, variable life insurance offers you investment options for the policy’s cash value.

Variable life insurance, like whole life insurance, has pros and cons. Here are the basics you’ll need to understand before considering a variable life policy:

How it works

  1. Variable life insurance pays a lump sum to your beneficiaries when you die, called a “death benefit.” The bigger the death benefit, the more expensive the policy premiums.
  2. Monthly or annual payments, called premiums, are required to keep the policy in force. You’ll need to pay them your entire life to keep the policy active.
  3. Each time you pay your premium, a certain amount goes toward the “cash value,” or the policy’s savings component. The insurance part of the death benefit shrinks over time as the cash value grows, until eventually the cash value makes up all of the money the insurance policy will pay out.
  4. You’ll have the opportunity to invest the cash value in various funds offered by the insurer. Fund performance will reflect broader market trends. You may earn more interest than you would with a whole life policy, which fixes your interest rate, but you’ll be exposed to risk as with any market investment if the fund underperforms.

Variable life insurance is basically whole life insurance with added flexibility around how the policy’s cash value grows over time. Here’s a snapshot of variable vs whole life insurance:

Variable Life OverviewWhole Life Overview
Guaranteed Death BenefitYesYes
Guaranteed Cash ValueNoYes
How Cash Grows (or Shrinks)Subaccounts - pool of investor funds offered by insurerEarns interest at pre-determined rate
NotesRisk of holding expensive insurance policy with little to no cash valueNo risk compared to other permanent types, but there are probably better investment options

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Pros & cons of variable life insurance

Variable life insurance premiums are much more expensive for the same death benefit coverage than term life insurance, which covers you for a set period of time—usually while you have dependents. It’s also a more complicated product than whole life insurance. While variable life insurance gives you some investment options for the cash you save over the course of your life, those options are still somewhat limited and are open to risk. Policygenius usually recommends term life insurance as the best choice for most shoppers.

Want to keep learning? Read our full analysis on the pros and cons of term life vs whole life policies.

Reasons to buy variable life insurance

  • Protect your family from debts like mortgage and student loans in in the event of your untimely death
  • Create tax-free inheritance for beneficiaries (applicable to high net-worth individuals whose inheritance will be subject to estate tax)
  • Cover final expenses like funeral and other end-of-life costs
  • Establish long-term savings, with the ability to invest in insurer-provided funds

Drawbacks of variable life insurance

  • Much more expensive than term life insurance for the same level of protection for your beneficiaries
  • Limited investment options for the cash value you’ll build, risk exposure to the cash invested
  • Risk of losing coverage if you can’t keep up with expensive premium payments

Not sure what kind of coverage you need? Use our simple calculator to find out in 5 minutes.

Other types of permanent life insurance

Whole life insurance

A basic form of permanent life insurance. Whole life insurance offers death benefit coverage to beneficiaries that gradually reduces the insurer’s commitment as the policyholder’s cash value builds. Cash value earns interest at a fixed rate predetermined by the insurer.

Universal life insurance

Similar to whole life insurance, except it offers the policyholder the option to use the cash value to pay for premiums. The interest that the cash value earns is also subject to change with universal life, whereas it’s fixed with whole life.

Final expense insurance

A type of permanent life insurance usually used by seniors, final expense insurance is meant to cover any end-of-life costs and outstanding debts. Policies are typically sold for smaller coverage amounts—$10,000 or $25,000 for example.

Guaranteed life insurance

Permanent life insurance for seniors who may not qualify for other kinds of life insurance. Policies are sold for smaller amounts of coverage — typically a maximum of $10,000 — and nearly all applicants are accepted. Premiums are expensive relative to the amount of coverage.

Consider term life insurance

Term life insurance

Many shoppers prefer to avoid permanent insurance policies altogether and instead opt to buy a term life policy and invest the rest of their savings in a retirement account such as an IRA or 401(k).

Learn more about term life insurance.

Policygenius’ editorial content is not written by an insurance agent. It’s intended for informational purposes and should not be considered legal or financial advice. Consult a professional to learn what financial products are right for you.